Russell, E. W. & Russell, S. L. K., (2003). Twenty Ways and More of Diagnosing Brain Damage When There Is None. Journal of Controversial Medical Claims, 10 (1)

Forensic practice reveals apparent major errors that many practicing neuropsychologists commit in spite of advanced training. The sources of error are related to test administration, test selection, battery utilization and test interpretation. Test administration errors include: administration and clerical errors. Test selection errors include: failure to appreciate normal variation, intertest norming problems and demographic variable effects. Defenses include: Conorming, validation of batteries and computerization. Interpretive errors include: inadequate use of background and history, inadequate estimation of premorbid intelligence and failure to consider other forms of brain damage, affective disorders and effort (malingering).

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